15 billion years ago BIG BANG: Birth of UNIVERSE

BB+… UNIVERSE as a blur:  Planck period (Singularity to 10-43 seconds)

BB+10-34 seconds GUT (Grand Unified Theory) Era: Matter emerged as Quarks; also anti-matter

BB+1 minute: Electrons appeared after collisions with positrons

BB+3 minutes:  Heavy Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, Beryllium etc formed

BB+1B years: Galaxies, Quasars & Stars formed

BB+3B years: Solar System formed

5B years ago: Earth formed out of condensed intergalactic dust

4.5B years ago: Molecular life on Earth begins

2.8B years ago: Nucleated cell appears

2.5B years ago: Archean eon ends; Earth’s surface in modern pattern of plate tectonics

2.4B years ago: Oxygen forms in the atmosphere

1.5B years ago: Life supporting atmosphere formed on Earth

1.2B years ago: Organisms developed locomotion and Sexual reproduction

700m years ago: early water-borne animals appeared

600 m years ago: Plants appeared

540m years ago: Cambrian explosion: evolution of intelligence; new forms of life with hard body

400m years ago: Land based animals and plants evolved

375m years ago: Fish adapted to live on dry land a la croc

350m years ago: Carboniferous period; Reptiles evolved

348-344m years ago: Salamander like tetrapod –evolution of fish to first vertebrates

300m years ago: Fungus began to grow on land

245m years ago: Earth a big continent in early Mesozoic era, one ocean: Panthalassa

200m years ago: Jurassic period: Dinosaurs and Mammals

180m years ago: The original landmass Pangea splits into Gondwanaland & Laurasia

140m years ago: Cretacious period; Birds started flying

135m years ago: Greenland separates from N.America & India moves northwards to Asia

70m years ago: Dinosaurs & many species extinct, due to possible meteorite impact

65m years ago: Evolutionary ascent of Primates

5m years ago:  First Humanoids appeared: Bipods used tools

2-3m years ago: Homo habilis descended from Southern Apes and evolved as Homo erectus

0.5m years ago: Homo sapiens (wise ones) developed language

0.3m years ago: common ancestor of homo sapiens and neanderthals said to have existed

0.25m years ago: Homo Sapiens attained refined forms

0.15m years ago: earliest human ancestor, a female existed, and males evolved later.

0.1m years ago: Human evolution plateaus in Asia

60,000 years ago: Humanoids tamed Fire in China

40,000 years ago: Human evolution perpetuated in Europe (Neanderthal valley)

40K years ago: Only Homo Sapiens of Humanoids survived

10,000 BC: Vedic civilisation said to have existed

10,000y ago: Last great ice sheet melts in Europe and North America

8000 BC: Agricultural village settlements existed in the Middle East

7300 BC: Ramayana said to be traced to

5500 BC: Irrigation in river valleys boosted yields; agriculture heralded dry area occupation

6000y ago: Mesopotamian civilisation

5500y ago: Written language evolved; also Wheels, Boats, Abacus, Clock…

3550 BC: Indus valley civilisation well developed in agriculture, trade, coinage, jewellery, religion etc

3000 BC: Asphalt used by Sumerians to caulk boats

2350 BC: Boat building basin existed in Lothal; Trade to Mesopotamia flourished

2000 BC: Eastern mystics compiled holy scriptures based on meditative reflections

2000 BC: Indus valley civilisation flourishing till Indo-Aryan invasion of 1500 BC

1775 BC: Lending money at interest existed in Babylon of Hammurabi

1758 BC: Sumerian Emperor Hammurabi codified 282 judgements: Origins of Case Law

1350 BC: Mahabaratha said to be traced to

1290 BC: Biblical parting of Red Sea for Moses & his men to escape

1000 BC Mayan civilization prevalent in Yucatan (Mexico) Peninsula

776 BC: The first athletic race `the foot race’ at the sacred place of Olympia

700 BC: Sumerian Epic Gilgamesh poses first serious challenge to laws of Gods

700 BC: World’s first university established in Takshila

599-527 BC Mahavira the 24th Thirthankara credited for invigorating Jain philosophy

570-490BC Lao-tzu’s Taoism of philosophy & mystical beliefs urges individuality

563-483BC: Budhism emerges challenging Hinduism’s Gods & rituals

551-479BC: Confucius propounds ideology of society origins of which traced to 11th century BC

539 BC Jews return to Palestine

500 BC: Vedic vision of consciousness expounded by Ashtavakra

500 BC: Ayurvedic methods of treatment consolidated by Charaka

440BC: Democritus speculates on fundamental indivisible particles calling them atoms

400-200 BC: Rationalists Socrates, Plato, Aristotle philosophised/logics: leading to modern Sciences

340 BC: Geocentric universe posited by Aristotle; Ptolemy and Church accepted same

200BC: Archimedes discovered buoyancy pondering over Golden wreath; screw pump, pulleys too
100BC: Susruta’s treatise on surgery

27 BC: Dawn of Roman Empire which lasted 5 centuries till 4762000 years ago: Jesus of Nazareth, a Jew, crucified; Christianity offshoots from Judaism


2000 years ago: Jesus of Nazareth, a Jew, crucified; Christianity offshoots from Judaism
499: Aryabhatta through his treatise Aryabhattiya expounds on Mathematics & Astronomy
579: Prophet Mohammed preaches Islam

788-820 Adi Sankaracharya preached advaita (non-duality, singularity) philosophy

600: 4Cocoa beans for a pumpkin, 10 for rabbit & 100 for a slave among Mayan Indians

10th Century: Arabs distilled Crude oil and lit street lamps

1000 Years ago: Vikings crossed over from Norway to North America

1000: The first modern Novel `The Tale of Genji’ was written by Murasaki Shikibu

1066: William the Conqueror, a Norman king conquers Anglo-Saxon England

1024: China issued the first paper money; Sweden followed suit only in 1661

1026: Somnath temple in Kathiawar plundered by Mahmud Ghazni; Hindu rule of N. India fades by 1192

1099: Jerusalem conquered by the first Christian Crusaders from Muslims

1180: Alexander Neckham wrote about European Lodestone compass needle

1200: Manco Capac created Inca settlements in Cuzco valley in Peru

1206 Mongol armies spread across central Asia, Eastern Europe, Middle East, by 1279 to China

1215: Magna Carta; King John recognises property rights

1249: Roger Bacon made gunpowder (from Arab manuscript; China had fireworks in 9th century)

1250: European sailors started using Chinese invented magnetic compass

1300: Banking system prevalent in Italy; Capitalism taking shape elsewhere in Europe

1347-49: Black death due to plague, one in three Europeans dead

1350: Incas built 100m span suspension bridge along Apurimac using twined plant fibres lasting till 1890

1400: Class system in India permeates as social strata; Class mobility wanes.

15th century: Renaissance in Europe (Leonardo da Vinci, Machiavelli, Michelangelo)

1430s: Johannes Gutenberg’s invented printing (Pi Sheng had done so in China in 11th century)

1453: Europe’s best defended city Constantinople fell to Ottomans’ gun powder bombardments

1457 First European book printed with movable type

1469: Afansy Nikitin a trader Tver, Russia came to India by Sea (before VascoDaGama)

1500s: Guru Nanak (1469-1539) launches Sikhism emphasising the oneness of humanity

500years ago: Ocean adventure era: Continents discovered and mapped

1514: Copernicus explained heliocentric theory -Sun as the centre of Solar system

1517: Martin Luther King launches Reformation, nailing 95 critical theses on a church door

1519: Aztec capital Mexico seized by Spanish

1522: Ferdinand Magellan's "Vittoria" became the first ship to sail around the world

1524: Turkish invaders carved out Mughal empire in India lasting till 1750 falling to the British

1531-1572: Inca empire conquered by the Spanish

1553: Muscovy Company of London issued the first Equity shares

1563: Statute of Artificers in England laid out 14 hours work per day

Mid-16th centrury-1865: Slavery practised; 12m Africans shipped to America

1582: Oct 4-15 skipped to create the new Gregorian Calendar (from Julian one)

1590:  Compound microscope developed & invented by Zacharias Janssen

1600: East India Company set up

1608: Telescope made by Hans Lipperhey (Galileo improved it much in 1609-10)

1609: Galileo discovered satellites of Jupiter and disproved geocentricity

1609 Johannes Kepler postulated elliptical orbits for planets & underlined heliocentricity

1620 Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to America to escape religious persecution

1633: Galileo faces inquisition and forced to abjure his Sun-centric belief

1639-1853 Japan cuts off itself from the rest of the world.

1649: King Charles executed in England; Monarchy loses its grip on society

1654: Existence of atmosphere hypothesised (vacuumed hemispheres unseparated by horses in Magdenburg)

1658: First Telescopes; Pendulum clock invented by Huygens

1666: Great London Fire

1681: Languedoc Canal linking Atlantic & Mediterranean through South France completed

1687: Newton’s `Principia’; Gravity, Laws of Motion, Differential Calculus

1712: Thomas Newcomen made the first Engine to use a piston in a cylinder

1725: James Bradley measured speed of light (only 2% error) using `stellar parallax’  principle

1749: Georges Buffon speculated Earth’s age at 12times that of Biblical derivations

1759: John Harrison made the first Marine Chronometer

1765: James Watt’s Steam Engine (Thomas Newcomen had invented the same 50 yrs earlier)

1775: Submarine invented by David Bushnell

1780-1840 Industrial Revolution on Steam

1776 Inquiry into the Nature & Causes of the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith published

1776: United States gains independence

1783: Joseph & Jacques Montgolfier demonstrated that hot air balloon can lift man.

1789: Bastille uprising in France; royal regimes deposed

1790s: Oil bucketed out of hand dug wells in Borneo

1796: Vaccination introduced by Edward Jenner

1798: Income Tax introduced in England by William Pitt the younger

1800: Volta’s Electric Battery

1803: John Dalton introduced idea of atoms and their weight

1804: Beethoven sets the tone for Western classical music with his Eroica

1804: Solid Fuel Rocket invented by William Congreve

1810-25 Latin America breaks free from European occupation; rest of the world only a century later

1811: Limited liability concept became law in N.York –the key to Industrial capitalism!

1815: Humphry Davy made Davy’s Safety Lamp

1831: Michael Faraday demonstrated electromagnetic induction.

1832: The Reform Act introduced `adult franchise’ in England.

1832 Morse code (for signalling) created

1832: Charles Darwin visited Galapagos island on `BEAGLE’ & hunched Lyell’s principles of Geology

1839: Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre captured images through direct Photography

1840-1890 Railway age

1843: Ada Byron contributed decisively to Charles Babbage’s ideas on Analytical Engine

1848 Karl Marx’s MANIFESTO of the Communist Party released

1850s: Electric telegraph developed

1859: Darwin (plodded by A R Wallace) expounded survival of the fittest through `Origin of Species’

1859: First oil well drilled in America (in 1908 only in Middle East)

1859: Louis Pasteur discovered that bacteria causes infectious diseases.

1860: Maxwell proposed unified theory of forces linking electricity & magnetism

1860: The Summer Palace in Beijing (Peking) looted and burned down by Europeans

1865: Gregor Mendel discovered the basic laws of heredity

1866: Alfred Nobel concocted dynamite

1866: Benjamin Chew Tilghman made Paper from Wood Pulp using Sulfite process

1876: Graham Bell displays Telephone which put into service by 1990

1879: Thomas Edison’s Electric Bulb (incandescent filament lamp) lights up

1884: Gotlieb Daimler made high-speed petrol engine & Kar; Benz motorised tricycle

1884: Hermann Hollerith designed the first mechanical computer (which Charles Babbage had conceived earlier)

1885: Car powered by internal combustion engine

1887: Michelson-Morle experiment demolished the concept of ether

1887: Heinrich Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect

1887: Air inflated tyre made by J B Dunlop

1890-1950 Electricity age

1890s: J.J. Thomson identified the first sub-atomic particle: Electron

1892: Rudolf Diesel patented Diesel engine

1894: Engels completed Marx’s Das Kapital (3rd Volume) (1st Vol in 1867, 4th Vol in 1910)

1895: X-Rays discovered by Wilhelm Rontegen

1896: Marconi patented `Wireless’ communication

1898: First wireless distress signal sent by East Goodwin Lightship after collision by R F Mathews

1896: First International Olympic games conducted in Athens.

1898: Marie Curie and Pierre Curie isolate and study radium and polonium

1900: Max Planck elucidates quantum hypothesis and blackbody radiation law

1901: The first radio signal sent across Atlantic –received by Guglielmo Maarconi

1903: Wright brothers demonstrate flight with Airplane

1905: Einstein’s Theory of Relativity; explains Photo electricity

1907: Einstein predicted that lights rays would be bent by gravitational force.

1907: Motor operated washing machine developed (first hand cranked ones made in 1858)

1908: Henry Ford’s Model T car launched

1908: Motion Picture Patents Company set up.

1910: Ernest Rutherford discovered nucleus, apart from electrons

1911: Air-conditioning invented by W.H. Carrier

1911: Standard Oil broken up using the Sherman Anti Trust Act of 1890

1911: Man reaches the South Pole (Ronald Amundsen)

1914-1918: First World War: about 3m perished

1917: Lenin’s Marxist revolution in Russia.

1924: Satyendra Bose and Albert Einstein introduce Bose-Einstein statistics

1926: Robert Goddard invented Liquid Fuel Rocket

1928: Heisenberg on Matter

1928: Alexander Fleming observed the anti-bacterial properties of penicillin

1929 October: Stock market Crash: Great Depression followed

1929: Universe was considered static till Big Bang theory through `Red shift’ gained acceptance

1926: Paul Dirac introduces Fermi-Dirac statistics
1927: Werner Heisenberg states the quantum uncertainty principle

1928: Chandrasekhara Raman studies optical photon scattering by electrons

1932: James Chadwick discovers the neutron and Carl Anderson the positron

1936: General Theory of Employment, Interest and MONEY BY John Maynard Keynes

1942: Enrico Fermi achieved the first controlled nuclear chain reaction in Chicago

1939-1945 Second World War; ends after Nuclear bombing in Hiroshima & Nagasaki

1946: First General purpose computer introduced

1947: First Transistor in operation

1947: George Gamow mooted the idea of Big Bang

1947: 1m killed in Indian communal violence during independence partition

1947: Chuck Yeager broke the sound barrier at 741mph

1951:  Charles Townes invented Maser which lead to Laser (1960)

1951: Grace Hopper developed concept of automatic programming that led to COBOL

1952: Che Guevara –an Argentinean Doctor launches his brand of Communism in S.America

1953: DNA structural features discovered by Watson & Crick

1954: Video recording invented by an American company Ampex (Sony ’74, JVC’76)

1955: Carbon dating process discovered by W.F. Libby

1956: First Nuclear Power Station Commissioned in Calder Hall (electricity was a bi-product)

1956: Birth control pill was tried out by Gregory Pincus

1956: Christopher Cockerell made Hovercraft

1956: Containerisation of cargo shipments introduced revolutionising transportation afloat & ashore

1957: Soviet Union launched Sputnik –the first man made satellite

1958: Jack S Kilby designed Integrated circuit, also later Calculator & Thermal printer

1961: First man to orbit the Earth in space: cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin

1965 Voting Rights Act in USA after `I have a Dream’ by R’d M.L King who was shot in 1968

1968: The first manned spacecraft leaves earth’s orbit and flies around the moon.

1969: Man on the Moon: Neil Armstrong

1967: First heart transplant by Christian Barnard

1971: Microprocessor invented by INTEL

1971: Ray Tomlinson facilitated email addressing using @

1973: TCP/IP devised by Robert Kahn & Vinton Cerf

1976: Personal Computer gains popularity

1979: Cosmological Inflation Model by Alan Guth

1990: World Wide Web invented

1993: Browser introduced

1997: Dolly: the first sheep cloned

1999: Global Maritime Distress Safety System introduced; Morse code &Semaphore BiBi

2001: Human Embryo cloned

2001: Terrorism goes international threatening Freedom, Security and Trades

2002: Unmanned spacecraft lands on Mars
2004: NASA’s X-43AScram Jet achieves Mach 7, later Mach 9.6


5 Billion years hence: Earth may vapourise due to extreme solar heat